Creative Gift Idea for the Holidays
RIGHT HERE IN NEW JERSEY
DNA tests are used today for many different reasons. Thanks to television, we are all familiar with the undignified paternity testing done by large production companies for entertainment purposes. Five minutes of fame is more important than a child's privacy? However, as a private DNA collector for over 5 years, I know there are many families that still believe questionable paternity is to be discussed and resolved inside the family only. We offer private, convenient DNA collections to confirm biological relationships, including paternity, maternity, grand paternity, siblings and avuncular tests. If you have a question about a DNA test, please give us a call and we'll explain best tests available and expected results.
During the holidays, perhaps a Gift Certificate for one of our other DNA tests is appropriate. Child Safety Identification gift certificates are available. A CSI certificate is a great way to show a child or loved one, your concern for their safety. It is the 21st century method of safeguarding loved ones - whether they are a child of school age, an elderly parent or a civilian working in an unstable environment. Having a DNA profile readily available for the authorities in an emergency, in just another tool in your kit of safeguarding your loved ones. Our DNA profile matches that used by national & international authorities for human identification. The same DNA profile may also be used in inheritance cases to insure that your family estate is divided among true relatives only.
The DNA Lady's most popular DNA testing for recreational purposes, is the Ancestry tests. We have tests ranging from $350 to $1000 - depending upon your interest and budget. The simplest test, provides a wonderful map of the world with the migration route your ancestors may have taken to bring them to North America. The more expensive tests, offer entry into a worldwide database, and if you have a genetic relative, you are given contact information in order to connect and discuss your possible family connections. (Written authorization required by everyone prior to release of information.) We recently connected a young woman in New Brunswick, NJ with a maternal relative, consider to be a 4th genetic cousin who lives in the UK. How exciting for her to find a genetic relative in another country! Ancestry Testing has become one of the fastest growing hobbies in North America and is a great way to get a conversation going within the family and keep them talking for months.
Lastly, if you are concerned with a loves ones health and they do not get regular medical check-ups - why not give them a wake-up call with a Predictive Genetic Screen. A simple fingerstick, and our laboratory will provide a person with their genetic risk factor vs. the population's risk factor for approximately 25 genetic diseases. All results are confidential. After receiving report, perhaps a person will be motivated to improve healthcare or even see a primary care physician or internist. Baby steps today may lead to improve quality of life in the future.
Whatever your reason or need, The DNA Lady would be happy to create a personalized gift certificate for you. We accept cash, credit card, check or money order or "buy now" and "pay later". We'll create the gift certificate for you and at time of collection, payment can be arranged.
St. Patrick's Day (Find out if you are really Irish)
Are you descendants of the Royal Irish Kings, the Vikings or Niall of the Nine Hostages?
Below are descriptions of genealogical studies groups available for Irish families to trace their ancestry back to the 5th Century possibly to the warlord known as Niall of the Nine Hostages. Requirements are but a few, rewards are everlasting. Allow us to put you in contact with others in our database with similar or matching genetic markers. Find out if others with the same surname are really part of your genetic family?
For all families of Irish descent and particularly for members of the Irish Genealogical Foundation and the monthly Journal of Irish Families, but open to all. To uncover and identify members of your family throughout the world today. Is your family descended from Vikings who settled in Ireland? What areas of Ireland or America might have family members that match your DNA ? What name spellings show the exact same DNA matches ? Which branch of the Kellys, Murphys or Sullivans do you spring from in Ireland ? A DNA match may be able to help answer some of these questions.
Surnames In This Project
Description Group II
The purpose of this project is to link related group members through the use of mtDNA (DNA passed from mother to all of her offspring) testing. The focus of this group is on maternal ancestry in Ireland. Therefore, the project is seeking those who have maternal Irish (Ireland or Northern Ireland) ancestry and are interested in comparing their MtDNA results with others for possible links. At a later date, this project may split into several regional or county projects.
Surnames are not the basis for the study of this group; however, maternal Irish and/or Scottish heritage is important.
Description Group III
A recent study conducted at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, found that a striking percentage of men in Ireland (and quite a few in Scotland) share the same Y chromosome, suggesting that the 5th-century warlord known as "Nialls of the Nine Hostages" may be the ancestor of one in 12 Irishmen. Pretty fertile guy. Niall established a dynasty of powerful chieftains that dominated the island for six centuries.
In the study scientists found an area in northwest Ireland where they claim 21.5% carry Niall's genetic fingerprint, says Brian McVoy, one of the team at Trinity. The same area of Ireland has previously been the subject of anthropological study...and has shown a strikingly high percentage of men from Haplogroup R1b (98%) versus 90% in southeast Ireland. According to McVoy this area was the main powerbase of the Ui Neill kings, which literally translated means "descendants of Niall".
McVoy says the Y chromosome appeared to trace back to one person. Following the genealogists' trail McVoy comments: "There are certain surnames that seem to have come from Ui Neill. We studied if there was any association between those surnames and the genetic profile. It is his (Niall's) family." McEvoy states: "As in other polygynous societies, the siring of offspring was related to power and prestige." The study mentions that just one of the O'Neill dynasty chieftains who died in 1423 had 18 sons with nearly a dozen women and claimed 59 grandsons.
Niall of the Nine Hostages received his name from the taking of hostages as a strategy for playing mental havoc upon his opponent chieftains. He is known in folklore as a raider of the British and French coasts. Supposedly slain in the English Channel or in Scotland, his descendants were the most powerful rulers of Ireland until the 11th century.
Surnames in this Project
Modern surnames tracing their ancestry to Niall include
Freedom "of" Religion - Not Freedom "from" Religion
Often times I receive emails with funny jokes, cute pics of puppies and kittens and sometimes an urgent request to send money to someone I don't know in a far off place. I'm savvy enough to know - and cheap too, that I wouldn't send money to anyone.
Today, I opened up a photo of a gentleman walking through a cemetery with the caption that the ACLU is fighting to disallow Navy Chaplains from using the word Jesus. What the hell is wrong with this country - doesn't the ACLU have some other wrong they could right. Do you not see a decline in our morals, values and ethics because the children of the 60s and 70s (those born to men and women from the "greatest generation") have gotten their way. Let me not generalize, not all from the 60s and 70s, but that generation of rock and roll, sex and drugs, and "anything goes baby" have now raised a generation of kids that do not know the fear of God or anything better than themselves. They wanted to raise children with "make believe silver spoons" in their mouths. Really, unless your last name is Trump or Hilton or Rockefeller, chances are you were not born with a silver spoon in your mouth. We had the greatest generation that gave way to the baby boomers, that gave way to the silent generation and the me generation that gave way to the generation Xers and now today we have the milenials - that is the ones who think so much of themselves that "there's no one more important than me" but they want everyone else to take care of them. And that's because they have no faith in themselves or a power greater than themselves that will take care of them, as long as they do the right thing, put one foot in front of the other and do that thing called "initiative", "motivation" and "accept your place in life".
So instead, we have a national organization trying to remove Jesus from a military prayer service.
LIFE WITHOUT GOD IS LIKE AN UNSHARPENED PENCIL---IT HAS NO POINT
ACLU has filed a suit to end prayer from the military completely. They're making great progress. The Navy Chaplains can no longer mention Jesus' name in prayer thanks to the ACLU and others. So to all the moms and dads of our fallen soldiers, where do they go for solace in their time of grief? Does the ACLU send "solace" providers or are these families left to figure it out on their own, rather than turning to God, asking for peace in our lifetime and praying for their child to rest in peace.
I was asked to pass on a prayer for our soldiers and their families. I feel that this is important enought to put it out on the internet. For God's sake, let's focus our efforts on what this country really needs, JOBs, HEALTHCARE, DEFENSES, R&D for Disease Prevention and Control, IMMIGRATION CONTROL (yes, that's right no more band aids - let's get a proper immigration process in place so that those who are here legally can obtain gainful employment along with the rest of the Americans).
Enough of my rant for the day. God has always taken care of me, and I know He will continue to do so. I also know He has enough to go around and will take care of our soldiers and their families, even if we try not to let Him. Even Obama figured it out that we need God in our works.
DNA Lady at the NAACP
I recently had an opportunity to represent my company in front of the local chapter of the NAACP. It was one of those really hot nights we've been having in New Jersey and I would think that most people, after a long day of work just wanted to go home and relax in the air conditioning, sit in a pool or maybe have a cocktail. Anything to escape the oppressive humidity and heat NJ has been experiencing.
I was surprised by the number of attendees who were at the meeting, interested, attentive and exchanging ideas on current events. I met members of the judiciary, healthcare employees, IT teachers, therapists, entrepreneurs and one skeptic. I like skeptics, I am one myself. If we had more time, I would have loved to talk to this man more - he had a very solid understanding of DNA, migration and the people of the world. Because of my business, we had differing opinions on state funded DNA tests but you have to respect everyone's opinion and he had some good examples of why the government should be allowed to have access to certain DNA profiles.
After the business portion of their meeting, my big moment arrives - I spent an entire day concerned about what I'm going to say, how I'm going to be received and what type of questions will I be fielding. However, after listening to a portion of their business meeting, I had an eery feeling of familiarity. In another lifetime, I attended meetings where we followed Robert's Rules of Order - agenda, table, discussion, motion, pass/fail and after a long hard day of work - the members of the NAACP were following Robert's Rules to the letter of the law. I knew that I was in front of a group of professionals at that moment.
My goal was to point out that we are all from the same place - Mitochondrial Eve stood up thousands of years ago and moved away from her family. Mitochondrial DNA is found all over the world as far back as 150,000 years but in DNA "speak" - that could be give or take 50,000 years. You first have to be convinced that DNA can be obtained from odd samples found in odd places and that the Cambridge Reference System contains enough samples of DNA to be a foundation for your search. Then you have to put aside some of your religious beliefs or perhaps fairy tales and understand - humans all began in the same place and time. I was told that I was an angel flying around up in heaven before I was born....I wonder if my parents still think that I was an "angel"?
I used my mother's DNA to prove how we are more alike than not. I emphasized how I was an Irish Catholic girl - come on look at my face- I have the map of Ireland on it. How my family values and traditions are all routed in the Irish traditions. I didn't go into how I could mix a Manhattan by the age of 5 or the late night rounds of Danny Boy at every St. Patrick's day party. But I did explain I grew up in a neighborhood where you were either Irish or not.
But then came the "kicker" as they say...my mother's DNA indicates she is not from Ireland but really more from the Southern Mediterranean, Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe. How could that be? I am sure I was told from day one - that I am purely Irish. What myths we are told as children and how ignorance can proliferate. I have family history records - birth certificates, death certificates, photographs - dating back to the 1800s - all of these people are Irish and I am proud to say - Irish woman who owned their own businesses!
It is true, I am Irish and I can argue with the best of them; however, I am only of recent Irish descent. My ancient family walked all over Africa, Asia, Europe - not too much on the South American continent and very little in what I know as Oceania. I expected my mother's DNA to indicate Spanish, Danish - she has red hair and we all know that came from the Vikings raping Irish women, - maybe even a little Great Britain but when her Ancestral map came back with hits all over Africa, the Northern Continent, Southern Europe, Asia and North America - I had to do a little more research to understand. Ancestral DNA testing labs break the world down into 4 categories - Native American, European, African and Asian. These four groups are further divided into Haplogroups - which is really the second step in Ancestry Testing - that is finding that particular genetic marker that groups you with a set of people and their particular migration out of Africa. The more you want to know - naturally the more the labs will charge but I think the technology for DNA Ancestry testing - should only be used as far as the grouping and the Haplogrouping and the migration maps. It is recreational only and should be considered as such. The shows we see on TV have spent hours on the historical research of famous people - the DNA test was only to confirm what the historical archives indicate or when there's a road block in recorded evidence.
I do not represent any one particular lab, but I stressed the importance of using accredited laboratories - in my mind - those that are accredited just have more processes in place to insure accuracy and reliability. I offered some of my own experience with the type of customer service I received from certain well known facilities and that just because you've heard of a company - doesn't mean they are the cadillac of services. I offered one man, a means to start his journey through his recent family by using one ancestry site and then once he has some information he can then determine what type of DNA information he needs.
The main thing about Ancestry testing, is that it is recreational fun. It may bring a family together or it may reveal something that someone would rather not know. You have to be prepared when going into your DNA search. My mother doesn't really accept that she is anything other than Irish and that's fine - she built a foundation for her family and traditions. I happy to have fond memories of learning the Irish jig and loud, drinking Irish parties - attended mostly by cops (family members), firemen and other solid citizens.
I would rather everyone get an Ancestry DNA test - see a map of the world through your DNA and understand - we are all from one place, going to the same place, and are just stopping by for tea (ring the bell with your elbows, please) on this place we call earth - for a short amount of time (in the scheme of things). I hope that the members of this local chapter, stop by my office one day to start their search for their Ancestry.
I had fun, I met alot of different entrepreneurs - we all understand that we need to help each other in this economy and so I hope anyone who reads this blog will also visit: www.ricemassage.com..or http://funlayo.greatshapetoday.com or www.juanraphael.com or The Trotman Group in Edison, NJ for your accounting and tax solutions. Tell them The DNA Lady sent you!
14th Annual Keyport Spanish American Festival August 11, 2012
14th Annual Keyport Spanish American Festival, 11 Aug 2012
The Keyport Spanish American Club is proudly sponsoring the 14th Annual Spanish American
Festival of Keyport on Saturday, Aug. 11, 2012 from Noon to 8:00 p.m.
Waterfront in Keyport, along Broad and First Streets.
The mission of the Spanish American Festival of Keyport is to further promote and support the advancement of hispanics in the bayshore communities and to celebrate the achievements and accomplishments of our members, benefactors, and beneficiaries.
"The Spanish American Festival is an event that Keyport looks forward to every year. The delicious foods offered, rhythmic dance music played by live bands, and all the smiling faces really bring the whole community together for a great time!” Said councilman joe sheridan.
The festival begins at noon and a full day of entertainment will include:
DJ Lady C - "La Comái Buena", X-plosion Musical & Atomic Band
Ethnic foods, children’s games, and much more.
Ample free parking will be available.
For more information, call Angel Matos at 732-213-6370 & online registration: 14th Annual Keyport Spanish American Festival
The Spanish American community is enjoying a number of different events around New Jersey this year.
Newark's Fifth Annual Latin Family Festival
Newark’s Fifth Annual “Latin Family Festival”
Newark’s Fifth Annual “Latin Family Festival” – “Festival de la Familia Latina 2012” will be held on Sunday, September 9th from 1pm – 6pm on Bloomfield Avenue between Lake Street and Clifton Avenue.
This year’s celebration’s theme, “Muevete” is aligned with First Lady Michelle Obama’s “Let’s Move!” campaign. The festival will promote physical activity and fitness among children, youth and families, as well as offer an entertaining and informative family outing.
Activities include live music and entertainment, free health screenings, raffles, arts and crafts, inflatable bouncers, and sports for children. Items such as Bicycles, helmets, backpacks, tickets to NJPAC and much more will be raffled throughout the day. Many local vendors will also participate in selling their goods and services.
Well, believe it or not, we are well on our way in preparing for this year’s Festival de la Familia Latina – Latin Family Festival!
When: September 9, 2012
Where: Bloomfield Ave., Newark, NJ
(Between Clifton Ave. & Lake St.)
How Long: 1:00 to 6:00 p.m. (Live musical performances will begin at 4:00 p.m. and all participants/vendors are being encouraged to pack up and come over to the stage at 4:00 p.m. to enjoy the show), DJ Lady C, La Comái Buena will have music all day
La Casa de Don Pedro is highlighting our 40th Anniversary during the Festival - bring on the Mojitos!
Puerto Rican Day Parade Sunday June 10th New York
Sunday - The Fabulous New York Puerto Rican Day Parade
Food, fun, family - ah nostalgia! Music, dancing, singing but where did it all come from?
If you are from Puerto Rico here are some fun facts about your heritage. Ancestry testing of someone from Puerto Rico might find descendants in Africa, Europe, South, Central and North America - possibly even the Middle East!
The primary ethnicity today of the island of Puerto Rico is considered Hispanic and Latin, that is, of or relating to Latin American descent especially Puerto Rican, Cuban, Mexican, South and Central America and other Spanish culture or origins regardless of race. Latin refers to the people of countries using Romance languages. Prior to the 15th century, the island was populated by the Taino and Arowak Indians, peaceful and clannish cultures, with enough agricultural knowledge to survive on local crops and fishing. Christopher Columbus re-discovered the beautifil island of Puerto Rico on his second trip financed by Isabela and Ferdinand of Spain and as the story goes enslaved the indigenous people. The Taino Indians believed the Spaniards were immortal and feared a revolt or uprising against them. It wasn't until the first decade of the 16th century that the Taino Indians unsuccessfully attempted a revolt against the Spaniards. Governor Ponce de Leon (so named by the Spaniards) ordered 6,000 shots - the surviving Taino or Arowak Indians either fled the island or took refuge in the mountains. Are you a descendent of an "jibaro" or more affectionately known as a "hillbilly"?
In November of 1511, the Spanish Crown granted Puerto Rico a beautiful Coat of Arms. If you are not able to view the crown here, go the http://welcome.topuertorico.org. The symbolism is clearly, Peace, Purity, Royalty and references to Christianity and St. John the Baptist.
Puerto Rican culture is somewhat complex. If culture is defined as a series of visual manifestations and interactions with the environment, then Puerto Rico has without a doubt several unique characteristics that distinquish its culture from any other. The Spaniards arrived on ships without an equal number of women. In order to populate the island, the Spaniard men took Indian women as "brides". The entire indigenous population was virtually decimated except for the very few who escaped to the mountains. Later, in order to maintain crops and to build roads, the Spaniards imported African slaves and Chinese immigrant workers followed by Italian, French from Louisiana and Haiti, German and even Lebanese. Farmers from Scotland and Ireland also migrated to Puerto Rico in search of a better life. Long after the Spaniards lost control of the island, Spaniards continued to arrive along with American ex-patriates. In the mid 1900s Cubans fled Fidel Castro's communist state and then later on economically depressed Dominican Republicans arrived. This historic intermingling results in a contemporary Puerto Rico without racial problems (or close to none). So if your family says they are from Puerto Rico, you could have descendants anywhere in South, Central or Latin America as well as Europe, Asia and Africa. Genetic testing can help you determine your true identity and ancestry.
In the mid 1500s, the Spaniards started a written account of Taino oral folklore. Much referred to ghosts and demons and weather related calamity. Cayetano Coll y Toste published his literary classics in 1924 "Leyendas y Tradiciones Puertoriquenas". More research and discovery is needed on the original population of the beautiful island of Puerto Rico. Did you know there are more "Puerto Ricans" living in New York City than in San Juan? The term "Nuyorican" is used to describe a Puerto Rican living in New York. A person of Puerto Rican descent considers himself/herself American but rarely calls himself/herself "Americano" and more often will use the term "PuertoRiquenos" or "Boricuas", which came from the Taino Indians name for their land "Boriken" or "Boriquen" which loosely translated means "land of the great lords".
If you are in New York on Sunday, June 10th, when you meet a Nuyorican - remember they are a warm, friendly and expressive mix of cultures from around the world. Greetings will be cordial and genuine. Have a Piraguas and embrace a Nuyorican - tell them the DNA Lady sent you!
Terrestrials, Indians and Cowboys in New Jersey
Linda Passarella, this months guest blogger, has contributed the following. Linda is a local New Jersey resident with a keen interest in all things fossil, ancient and unidentified. Linda is passionate about identifying these items and continues to spend her personal time and money on gaining concrete answers to her findings.
“YES” TERRESTRIALS, INDIANS AND COWBOYS “WERE” NEIGHBORS. THE “LENAPE RED RECORDS” THEY ARE “NOT A HOAX” PICTOGRAPHS PICS FOUND IN NEW JERSEY
The DaVinci code is practically cracked. Knowing and telling the truth is the American way and should never be put to a vote; it should be a natural reaction for any intelligent species. My name is Linda Passarella and I am a “studying” New Jersey's Geologist, Paleontologist, Archeologist and I am a Peacemaker. I have been told by the State, as an American, that I am allowed to believe in what I wish to believe about this subject. I respect them highly for this freedom.
With great respect, honesty, and dignity I would like to announce that I have found over 5000 Dinosaur claws with hair, and teeth intact preserved in clay. In addition to Lenape Indian artifacts over 4 years ago with pictures called pictographs. The artifacts are called Petroglyphs and have been aired on TVs History and Nova channels. Petroglyphs are not just in caves and on large mountains but are also on what we see as some ordinary rocks. They have carvings of Terrestrials inside Spaceships and are also tattooed with pictures by the Lenape Indians (Turtle Tribe ”Unami). I have been to my Musuem several times mediating with the authorities to be allowed to show people and tell humankind what I have found. So far I have been treated extremely fair on the Terrestrial circumstances and they are listening with an open ear. My artifacts have pictures of the Turtle, Wolf, and Turkey showing a United Lenape Indian Delaware Nation all on the same artifact. These artifacts are made of (Diagenisis) petrified bone, claw, and teeth from the dinosaurs. DaVinci was not the first person to hide things in his paintings. He most likely got the idea from the Indians and knew about the Terrestrials himself.
Later in history, Rafinesque who had over 50,000 Lenape Pictograph artifacts was shipwrecked along the Eastern Coast near New Jersey and Philadelphia. Rafinesque never was able to get the recognition or credit he deserved in finding our evolutionary answer in the Lenape artwork. He appears in our history books as dieing in poverty being wrong about the Red Records. I have pictures of a Deputy Sheriff, an Astronaut, a Celtic Soldier, 2 pictures of a Christ-like image but it is not a total human face. I have 2 pictures of Lenape Chiefs, one is Chief Beaver a very great and highly respected mediator between the Indians and our Military, and was also enlisted in our own Military. I have another of Chief White Eyes. I have pictures of the globe also showing the states in perfect formation with a couple of past land formations from an aerial view. (How is is that air travel was possible in that time?) I have posted some of the pictures on Weird NJ Magazine website also. I do not wish to attack anyone's religious beliefs but the “truth” is the best religion will unite “everyone”. I believe not just separate groups of people. We need everyone working together in order to be truly a productive, intelligent and lasting species. We need to accept reality no matter “what” it is or what we were brought up with, or we are living lies and no good can ever be accomplished based on lies.
These findings will be a hard one to discredit, and so far no one has tried to discredit it. The truth is important in order for mankind to evolve in a productive way instead of staying stagnant in a way of life that is slowly destroying them.
The Rock Lady by Linda Passarella
THE DNA LADY MEETS THE ROCK LADY
Linda Passarella, is a new, guest blogger to our site. Linda is a local New Jersey resident with a keen interest in all things fossil, ancient and unidentified. Linda has been bringing items of extreme interest to our office for almost a year. She had a presentation last Saturday, in Keyport, NJ, which we attended and were astonished at the size and condition of her findings. Several local families gathered to hear Linda’s findings and comments about New Jersey mud flats. Linda is passionate about identifying these items and continues to spend her personal time and money on gaining concrete answers to her findings.
This is a strange and true account including facts about what happened to an ordinary woman who decided to buy a Garrett 250 metal detector for some de-stressing and ended up finding Indian artifacts. If not strange enough then uncovered an ancient fossil bed with millions of pieces of dinosaur/reptile/fish/and creatures unknown including over 30 specimens with “HAIR” intact. I sent microscopic pictures to a famous Paleontologist. She thought hair was impossible because it would not be growing out of bone. Determined to get to the fact, Linda sent the Paleontologist an article by National Geographic citing a recently found and totally intact body of a baby Hadrasaur, including soft tissue intact. Linda believes if a Hadrasaur had hair it could have been preserve all these millions of years buried in certain soil. A process called Diagenisis meaning something living rots then turns into mineral appearing hard as what we classify as rock - The DNA Lady.
I collected over 3200 pieces of extraordinary, beautiful specimens that have been gone for millions of years, teeth, claws that are preserved because of “Enamel” being the hardest dense substance that it’s the last to rot. Enamel, that can still shine even now but has turned to a brownish color. Research for 5 years now has shown me by reading the scientists own writings, findings, ideologies, and personalities that the science we call Geology and Paleontology, have rules that allow them to disregard certain fossils and what appears to be rocks to them. These items are “not good”, but in my mind, everything should be considered possible and researched quickly for science. We are classified as having “Igneous rock” which is supposed to be just a certain type of rock that was formed “ONLY” by volcanic activity. After what I tell you and show you, you will also think that there is something our scientists are missing or ignoring, because they feel they need to be the “finders” or “discovers” of something, for it to actually really be something. Some scientist are limited in thinking an item has to be found where it should be found which does not always apply and everyone knows this. We stray away from our home and so did everything else that could move. That does not mean we should disregard anything found because one small finding could answer several evolutionary questions including any missing links that are still preserved in the ground, and there are a lot of preserved things especially in what we call mud flats.
The mud, salt, and iron content in New Jersey, especially by the water, preserves fossils like ancients civilizations. Ancient civilizations used the same process to mummify their remains (sea salt). I have brought my findings to Universities that cannot help because of not having the equipment to test the specimens for authenticity or dating. I then went to Museums that told me I have what they are calling “concretions” which is really anything that is old and has a coating of dirt or anything else adhered to it over time. But they will not say that the specimens were ever living like pieces of bodies/teeth/and claws which preserve easily in clay/mud/salt/iron mixture of dirt. I am my own personal funds and trying to identify the hair, which is coming out of what we call igneous rock. Like the hair in the Amber, if this hair has a follicle which is inside the so called igneous rock than the Igneous rock must indeed be a piece of some type of Mammal remains (body). I have met an astonishing woman by researching the net named the DNA LADY in Metuchen NJ. She deals professionally with DNA testing and is very well known in her field. My findings interested and intrigued her to the point of her offering assistance.
I will be submitting all specimens found and will be notifying the Smithsonian Institute all results and also several Geologist who are very interested in what I have found. I have over 20 pieces with the same black color and course textured mammal type hair. Fossils are not supposed to have hair still preserved on them and especially what we call Igneous rock I have presented my finding to the Keyport Museum on Saturday August 20th 2011 in an exhibit in order for the local public especially children to enjoy the local findings. I have met and spoke with several renowned professionals all over the United States who are not familiar with the East coast fossils at all which is even more reason to study and preserve what we have left. Between the DNA LADY and the ROCK LADY hopefully we will be able to add to history itself beside Geology and Paleontology. Everything gets updated and learned every minute in human life including our fossil record. There are beautiful things out there and they are under the ground we step on without noticing. I thank you, the DNA LADY, and thanks also to the Keyport Museum for supporting history and the ability to bring it into the future for everyone to see.
Latino Festival in Freehold, NJ October 1st, 2nd & 3rd
This year the Freehold or Monmouth County Latino Festival will introduce latino inspired films as part of the celebration of Latino heritage. The film festival will run from Friday, October 1st evening until Sunday, October 3rd in the afternoon. Seating is limited so get there early, buy a snack and enjoy some Latino culture.
The 6th Annual Latino Festival will celebrate with a day of dancing, games and entertainment on October 2nd in downtown Freehold Borough at the Hall of Records Parking Lot starting at 12 - noon and concluding at 7 p.m. The celebration coincides with Hispanic Heritage Month.
The weather forecast for this weekend is 68 degrees and mostly sunny - so let's hear it for the "luck of the Latinos" on planning this day of celebration. A cool breeze, a pisco sour and some latina dancing - what better way to spend a fall weekend in New Jersey.
“Every year the festival gets bigger and better not only with the variety of acts, but with our efforts at community outreach and inclusion. says the Festival Committee. “This year we are especially excited about the film festival and our new partnership with Center Players. This introduces an important cultural aspect that people have been requesting for several years.”
Local artist and celebrity Veronica Kole, of Freehold Township, will open the festival with the National Anthem and will perform a set of her original material in the middle of the day.
The confirmed performers this year are DJ Lady C. “La Comái Buena” and entertainment director, MC Nelson Rodriguez, the Alborada Spanish Dance Theater (flamenco dancing), RockNRoll Chorus, Grupo Caribe (salsa and merengue band), Zumba Party with Elcira, Mariachi Instrumental de México, Cimarrones/Run Away Slaves (Puerto Rican Folkloric group), Diverse (Zack and Eddie), Cassidy Molina from Howell High School and Tenor Luis Pacheco.
As for cuisine, we have Salsa Latina Restaurant, Bahia de Acapulco, Grill and Things, and others. Freehold has several top shelf restaurants in the event you cannot satisfy your hunger at one of the participating vendors.
There will be dozens of organizations present at the event to provide information about services to the community. The DNA Lady is reaching out to healthcare providers and immigration couselors in the community to get the word out about convenient, private DNA Testing to confirm family relationships. Many in the Latino community find the subject of DNA testing a private matter, not wanting to expose their family's business in court, in the hospital at time of birth or in the process of sponsoring a "family" member via Family Based Visas. Often times they will ask their local healthcare provider for a private referral in order to clear up rumors or doubts.
The Latino Festival started in 2005 at the Park Avenue Elementary School in Freehold Borough with just a few volunteers. The first festival attracted about 800 people. Last year’s festival was attended by between 4,000 to 5,000. With fantastic weather, a larger network of supporters and vendors - this year's event is sure to be attended by twice that of last years.
Here's what everyone has been waiting for - the Latino Film Festival Schedule:
All Films will be shown at the Center Players, 35 South Street, Freehold. There a film for everyone's liking - from SciFi to heartwarming to heartwrenching to the now timely topic of consumers dependence on oil. Get there early, grab some tortillas and salsa and enjoy.
Friday, October 1
7-9 pm Sleep Dealer - Science Fiction, rated PG13 (http://www.sleepdealer.com/synopsis.html)
Saturday, October 2
11 am to 1 pm The Perfect Game - Family, rated PG (http://www.theperfectgamemovie.com/) - Based on a true story, The Perfect Game tells the story of a group of boys from Monterrey, Mexico who become the first non-U.S. team to win the Little League World Series.
3-5 pm Whisky - Comedy, Not Rated (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0331370/) - Jacobo Koller is an unsuccessful and lonely middle-aged man who owns a failing sock factory in Montevideo, Uruguay. When Jacobo's mother dies, his younger, successful brother, Herman, comes to visit. To prove that his life has amounted to something, Jacobo enlists his co-worker, Marta, to pretend to be his wife. On a weekend break together in the sea-side town of Piriapolis, the trio reveal their true colors.
7-9 pm Buena Gente - Drama, rated R (http://www.buenagentemovie.com/) - Set in Washington Heights, NY, Buena Gente (Official Selection for the 2009 Queens Int’l Film Festival) tells the story of Chris Gil (Nick Talentino) who has commitment issues and compromises his relationship with his girlfriend, Desiree Madera (Yomaris Maldonado). After Desiree leaves him, Chris finds out she's put in a life-threatening situation and must save her.
*** Fabián Báez, the creator of the film Buena Gente will be attending the festival on Saturday (along with one of the film's actors) to introduce the film and participate in audience Q&A after the showing.
Sunday, October 3
2-4 pm Crude - Documentary, Not Rated (http://www.crudethemovie.com/press-room/) - Crude is the award-winning documentary that presents the story of the legal fight between 30,000 indigenous Ecuadorian rainforest dwellers and the U.S. oil giant Chevron. The plaintiffs claim that Texaco – which merged with Chevron in 2001 – spent three decades systematically contaminating one of the most biodiverse regions on Earth, poisoning the water, air and land. Crude focuses on the human cost of our addiction to oil and the increasingly difficult task of holding a major corporation accountable for its past deeds.
After a day of celebrating your Latino heritage, if you want to dive further into your true Ancestry, have your DNA collected to determine your true ancestral origins. The movement of populations in modern times is both voluntary via a migration within one's region and involuntary via a slave trade, trafficking in human beings and ethnic cleansing. Migration to the Americas, according to a Wikipedia article, took place about 20 - 15 millennia ago. The Age of Exploration and European Colonialism led to an accelerated pace of migration to the Americas. Find out your genetic regional affiliation with databases from 15 anthropological regions around the world.
Irish Citizenships Available
Are you of Irish Heritage? Do you have the telltale freckles and red hair or black hair and blue eyes? Do you call your Mother "ma" and your Father "da"? If so, a recent article in a Dublin newspaper announced the Irish government plans to introduce a certificate of Irish heritage for the up to 70 million people of Irish descent around the world who do not qualify for citizenship.
Michael Martin, Minister of Foreign Affairs, said he decided to proceed with the initiative, which was first approved last year by the Global Irish Economic Forum. Leave it to the Irish to come up with such a revenue enhancement program.
The certificates will be issued by a third party agency acting under the licence from the Department of Foreign Affairs, which is considering charging a fee for each document issued. The program is not designed to raise a significant amount of revenue and the price to be charged as yet to be determined.
The exact size of such a market for heritage certificates is unknown but it is anticipated that many Irish emigrants would wish to buy one to display in their homes or as a gift to another family member. Irish heritage and/or ancestral origins can be determined by a simple DNA Test at your local DNA collector's office. In addition to Paternity and other biological test confirmation, your local DNA collector also participates in today's growing hobby of genealogical tracing and ancestral root discovery via non-invasive DNA test. If you contact your local DNA collector, be sure to ask for your ancestral map along with your DNA test to confirm your Irish heritage.
Some members of the Irish government were critical of the disconnection between Ireland and the members of the diaspora, particularly those unable to qualify for citizenship by virture of having a parent or grandparent born in Ireland. The forum also highlighted the role that the emigrant network could play iin helping Ireland improves its economic fortunes and global competitive edge. The Irish do know how to unite to benefit themselves.
The Irish diaspora is not limited to Irish citizens living in Ireland and abroad but instead should encompass all those who believe they are of Irish descent and feel a sense of affinity with Ireland.
Certificate processing will be available later this year, according to the Minister. One incentive to participate in the certification process is to offer discounts to those holding the certificates while visiting Ireland as tourists.
The big news published in the early online edition of Science this week is the largest study ever of African genetic diversity, led by the University of Pennsylvania's Sarah Tishkoff. Covering 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations and scanning 1327 genetic markers, the international team of scientists found among other things that Africans are descended from 14 ancestral populations and that East Africa was the source of the migration that populated the rest of the world, summarizes a news story. Genetic Future's Daniel MacArthur calls is a "profoundly impressive paper," and for a more detailed analysis of the findings, check out full at GenomeWeb Daily News.
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Polilsh Ancestry Surname Project
If your surname appears below, then you have the opportunity to join one of our genetic ancestry research groups to further identify family members around the world. Researching family members through genetic matching brings your family closer together as they explore their past and find relatives that once were thought to be lost or missing. Become part of North America's fastest growing hobby and see how you are really part of a World Family Tree.
Surnames in Project
Abrons, Achramowicz, Adams, Ader, Altwasser, Amling, Andrae, Andraszczyk, Anoneychuk, Anonychuk, Antiporek, Antiporuk, Appel, Arciuch, Arko, Artykula, Atkins, Auden, August, Augustyn, Auzin, Auzins, Baca, Bagdon, Bagdonas, Bajerski, Bajor, Bajur, Balicki, Baltrusch, Banak, Banaszak, Bandjunis, Banuk, Baran, Barcikowski, Barker, Baron, Bartkowski, Bartz, Bass, Baumanis, Bauml, Becker, Begier, Beispiel, Belarus, Bell, Bembinster, Bembnesta, Bender, Benjaminsohn, Benjaminson, Berezik, Bernshtam, Besser, Betts, Bialik, Biechonski, Bielinski, Bien, Birnbach, Blair, Blaski, Blaszkowski, Blaufuks, Bloom, Blumstein, Bobinski, Bobinsky, Bobowick, Bodnar, Bodner, Bodurka, Bogomolov, Bokor, Bolesta, Bonchack, Bonczak, Bonczar, Borowik, Bottman, Brazan, Brazauskas, Brehmer, Brody, Brojda, Bromirski, Broudy, Brozenec, Brozgol, Brygier, Brylski, Brzoska, Buchinsky, Budz, Buesing, Bugenstein, Bukowski, Bulawa, Burak, Burchard, Butchsko, Cabat, Caspi, Cekot, Cenker, Cezer, Chaimovitch, Chamove, Chapnick, Charamut, Chartorisky, Chausovsky, Chazanavicius, Chernoff, Chesky, Chmielewski, Cholewa, Chornoby, Choroszewski, Chwick, Cichurski, Cien, Ciepley, Cieslak, Cimes, Cisowski, Cizewski, clark, Coe, Cohen, Colby, Combik, Constantino, Cook, Cox, Cristall, Cudak, Cuthie, Czaplicki, Czapnik, Czerniak, Czerniawski, Czubernat, Czwartacki, Czyzewicz, Daniel, Danko, Dargel, Dargiel, Demanouske, Deresiewicz, Dershewitz, Dillon, Diokhtar, Divin, Dluzen, Dobson, Doctor, Dolata, Dominski, Dorszewski, Dowhan, Draus, Dreliszak, Drellishak, Drengacz, Drost, Drozdowski, Dubas, Dubin, Duchak, Duke, Duminiak, Durniat, Dutchak, Dyrek, Dziedzic, Eberle, Ehlert, Eitingon, Elick, Epel, Eskov, Fano, Feduska, Feier, Feldberg, Ferley, Ferleyko, Feuer, Fijal, Finkel, Fisch, Flatau, Frackiewicz, Fredach, Fredman, Fredock, Freier, Freschl, Fruchtman, Frydach, Fudala, Gacek, Gach, Gajda, Gan, Gandurski, Gans, Gargala, Gasiorek, Gasiorkiewicz, Gatz, Gelezunas, Gercie, Gerlis, Gibbs, Giessel, Gill, Gimpel, Gitlin, Glebocki, Glinskas, Glowiczowca, Glowitz, Gold, Golden, Goldsmith, Goldstein, Golec, Goodfriend, Goralski, Gordon, Gorski, Gostynski, Goza, Gozhanskij, Grabski, Grade, Grebow, Grey, Gribov, Grigoriev, Gross, Grudzielan, Grudzielanek, Gryczan, Gryzan, Grzesik, Gulinski, Gurevich, Gustanski, Gutfrajnd, Guza, Gwozdecky, Gwozdz, Hanit, Harris, Hauhio, Hazanavicius, Heffler, Heimann, Heimovitz, Hejduk, Helms, Herman, Herubin, Heuchert, Hill, Himmelstein, Hnatowicz, Hobbs, Hoefler, Hofstee, Hollems, Holodiloff, Holodilov, Holowesko, Holowieszko, Hospodar, Howell, Hubscher, Humes, Hurgoi, Hurni, Icken, Ignarski, Insadowski, Itskovsky, Ivashchenko, Iwanowicz, Jaffe, Jahanesky, Jahn, Jakimonis, Jakobek, Jakutis, Jamilkowski, Janice, Janus, Jarosz, Jasinski, Jaskolski, Jaskulski, Jastrow, John, Jozwiak, Judkewitz, Junikiewicz, Jurkiewicz, Kabat, Kalinowski, Kalkowski, Kaluzinski, Kaminskas, Kaminskaus, Kaminski, Kaminsky, Kaplanski, Kaplansky, Karp, Karpinski, Karvel, Kastanavicius, Katlic, Katsev, Katzeff, Kaufman, Kaufmann, Kawczewski, Kenski, Key, Khazanavicius, Khrustalev, King, Kirsch, Kirsten, Kitces, Kitzes, Kleczkowski, Klem, Klemanowicz, Kletskin, Klinger, Klobukowski, Klosowski, Kman, Kmiec, Knapp, Knopf, Kobylarz, Kobza, Koc, Kocan, Koch, Koczgodonski, Kolano, Kolbachinski, Kolinski, Kolodziej, Komarnicki, Komiski, Kondratyev, Kordela, Kordonowy, Korkin, Korus, Kosow, Kosowski, Kosowsky, Kossacki, Kossoris, Kot, Kott, Kouchinsky, Kozietulski, Kozlowski, Krahmalkov, Krandel, Krawczyk, Krawiec, Kreindler, Kreitzberg, Krich, Krokhmalnik, Krupa, Krupinski, Kruskie, Krysmalski, Kuberski, Kuchinski, Kuciauskas, Kuczynski, Kukles, Kulas, Kulesza, Kulis, Kulko, Kulma, Kunasz, Kuncaitis, Kustinavage, Kuzdzal, Kwas, Kwasniewski, Kwiatkowski, Labecki, Labinsky, Labus, Labuz, Lach, Lachut, Laddin, Lamka, Lang, Lapinski, Lapotsky, Lapowski, Larky, Lasek, Lashnits, Laskowski, Lassek, Lassner, Laszynski, Latvia, Lauklejs, Lavendoski, Lech, Lefkowitz, Lehmann, Leibowitz, Leiser, Leitt, Lenart, Leonard, Lepoff, Lepovski, Lerch, Leschins, Leschinsky, Leszczynski, Levin, Lewandowski, Lewkow, Lewkowich, Lewkowicz, Lewkowsky, Lichtenstein, Liedtke, Lietzke, Light, Linial, Lipka, Lipkin, Lithuania, Litke, Litrun, Litwin, Locher, Lopienski, Lotocki, Lowell, Luberda, Lubert, Lubiniecki, Lugo, Lukacs, Lukas, Lukaszewicz, Lytwyn, MacFarlane, Maciejewska, Maciejewski, Mack, Madejowna, Madziarczyk, Magnuski, Maj, Majewski, Majka, Major, Majowicz, Makarewicz, Maksymowicz, Makuch, Malec, Malinowski, Malkowski, Malski, Malysz, Mamajek, Marcisz, Marcks, Marshall, Martin, Mason, Matluck, Matus, Matusik, Matussowsky, Matuszkiewicz, Matyszkiewicz, Maxim, Mayka, McTighe, Meade, Mendala, Mentuz, Metelski, Metrikis, Mezynski, Michnal, Micknal, Mihaylov, Milanski, Milinski, Miller, Milyo, Minakowski, Mink, Minkowsky, Mintz, Mirakian, Mis, Miscavich, Mish, Mishefske, Misochko, Miszkura, Mitchell, Mlochowski, Moesko, Montgomery, Morris, Moszynski, Motelewski, Mozariwskyj, Mozarowski, Mozesson, Mroczek, Mroz, Mucenieks, Mustra, Nadachewicz, Nadol, Nagi, Natowich, Nelson, Nevmerzhitsky, Nickel, Niedzwiadek, Nieumierzycki, Nikitchyuk, Nikolenko, Nitavskis, Nomberg, Novack, Novak, Nowak, Nowakowski, Nowicki, Nugent, Nykiel, Oglodzinski, Oilschlager, Oleksandriw, Orbik, Orlen, Orlie, Orlikowski, Orlin, Osowski, Ossowiecki, Ossowski, Ostrowski, Pabich, Paisner, Palii, Pallaschke, Pashkov, Pasztak, Patla, Patulny, Pawlovich, Pawlus, Pecura, Pelak, Penensick, Pererva, Perton, Peters, Petravick, Petronaitis, Pevsner, Phillips, Pianka, Pias, Piasetzki, Piatkowski, Piegat, Pietruszewski, Pilewski, Pincus, Pincusevitch, Piotrowski, Pobikrowski, Podgorski, Podolski, Podraza, Poglod, Poglodzinski, Polak, Poland, Polish, Pollak, Pollock, Pomykalski, Popovski, Popowski, Popper, Postick, Potulny, Povlotsky, Powichrowski, Prager, Pranauskis, Preuss, Price, Printz, Prinz, Prus, Pryanikov, Przedpelski, Przewlocki, Przezdziecki, Pusiak, Puzyna, Pylypiv, Rabbinowitz, Rach, Radke, Radtke, Radzilowicz, Radzilowski, Radziwilowicz, Rafalske, Raguckas, Rak, Rakowicz, Rakowitz, Ratza, Rauch, Rawsky, Reagen, Redzisz, Ren, Rewera, Richert, Richters, Rinsky, Robak, Robinson, Rochowiak, Rockwell, Rogov, Rogowski, Rohlin, Roman, Romanski, Ropeleski, Rosarios, Rose, Rosenberg, Rosine, Rospond, Rostowski, Rostowsky, Roundsley, Rozic, Rudczynski, Rudzinski, Runka, Ruther, Rutkowski, Rychert, Sabroske, Sachs, Sacks, Sadle, Sadowski, Safian, Sakalauskas, Sakowicz, Sakowski, Sakry, Salasevicius, Samorzewski, Samuel, Sanders, Sanecki, Sanowski, Sarazan, Savada, Savage, Schalcosky, Schapiro, Schenn, Scherek, Schmidt, Schmukler, Schneegurt, Schober, Schreier, Schulsinger, Schwartz, Schweitzer, Seanosky, Sederevicius, Sedols, Sedon, Seidenfeld, Seliga, Selinske, Selke, Serapin, Serapins, Serebryanyi, Sermuksnis, Shabason, Shack, Shapiro, Sheff, Shepley, Sherman, Shimansky, Shirek, Shostack, Shtrunov, Shustarovich, Sidaravicius, Sidorowicz, Sidrys, Siegel, Sieradzki, Silver, Simans, Simon, Simons, Simrajh, Simrayh, Sinclair, Singel, Sinkevich, Sinkus, Skalski, Skapyak, Skarbek, Skodinski, Skopets, Skrabacz, Skrabot, Skripka, Slagle, Slawecki, Sliwinski, Sloan, Slomski, Slupko, Smith, Smuda, Smyka, Soballa, Sobieski, Sobieszczyk, Sobolewski, Sodrick, Solarz, Solecki, Solinski, Solish, Sosnowski, Sovinski, Sowinski, Spector, Spychalski, Stanaszek, Stanis, Staniszewski, Stankevicius, Stankus, Stanowski, Stasiak, Staszkiewicz, Stavsky, StClair, Stebletsov, Stein, Stolar, Stolarchuk, Stone, Stosius, Strasz, Straszewski, Strenkowski, Strus, Strynkowski, Strzalkowski, Strzyzowski, Stychalski, Styczen, Succolosky, Sudravskiy, Sulc, Sweas, Swiatek, Swiderski, Swigon, Sygall, Szapiro, Szarzanowicz, Szczawlinski, Szczepanowski, Szczepinski, Szczesny, Szczodruch, Szczublewski, Szeliga, Szewczuwianiec, Szkodzienski, Szkodzinski, Szostak, Szozda, Szudzik, Szumowski, Szuyski, Szymanowski, Talanda, Tamkus, Tartol, Tatucha, Tecosky, Temosh, Terlaga, Terlecki, Thomas, Thugut, Tiede, Tikotsky, Tolloczko, Tomaschke, Tomaszek, Tomaszewski, Tomczyk, Tomkowicz, Tomorowicz, Tosczak, Toustiuk, Toviah, Troubetzkoy, Trubecki, Tryba, Trzcinski, Trzeczcinski, Tsiperson, Tucker, Turek, Turk, Tuszynski, Tverdokhleb, Tymczuk, Tymush, Ukraine, Ulaszewski, Urban, Urbanowicz, Valego, Valko, Van Garrick, Vanett, Vasko, Venot, Venzhego, Vicas, Vinnitskij, Virbitskis, Vishinski, Vistins, Vojticek, Volk, Waishes, Wajskop, Walega, Walko, Walsh, Warzabu, Wasilewski, Wasowski, Waszak, Wederich, Wekluk, Welgos, Weller, Wellman, Welna, Wershow, Westing, Westreich, White, Wicas, Wielgos, Wielicki, Winborn, Windak, Wiseman, Wishnack, Wiskup, Wodtke, Wojcik, Wojtanek, Wolan, Wolkonski, Woroniecki, Woytuch, Woytuck, Wozniak, Wroblewski, Wrycza, Wybieralski, Wynett, Wyrwas, Wysmulek, Wyszynski, Wytrwal, Yaroslavsky, Yerzy, Yerzykowicz, York, Yorks, Yurick, Zajac, Zajachowski, Zajenkauskas, Zakrzewski, Zaleski, Zalewski, Zane, Zapolski, Zaremba, Zawada, Zelinsky, Zera, Zhurakhov, Zielinski, Zlot, Zlotorzynski, Zolinsky, Zotkiewicz, Zukowski, Zülske, Zwiefka, Zydel, Zylka
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The DNA Lady is now offering Genetic Genealogy testing services.
We are a locally owned DNA collecting and testing company and have recently begun offering Genetic Genealogy testing services to its clients. Genetic Genealogy is a relatively new branch of DNA testing that got its beginning around 1998 with the widely publicized Thomas Jefferson-Sally Hemmings case.
Through Genetic genealogy testing, you can discover your past. From tracing your ancestry through its ethnic origins, to discovering if you are related to someone with the same surname as yours, genetic genealogy testing can help give you those answers.
If you are African American, we can give you clues about a geographical location for your African ancestry. If you are of Jewish descent, you can discover your Jewish ancestry and if you match others who are of Jewish descent. Even if you have hit a "brick wall' in your ancestry research, our testing services may assist you in opening up new avenues to continue that research. Our partner laboratory has comparative databases which are among the largest in the world, containing records of possible ancestors from all over the globe.
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Happy Birthday America - July 4th, 2009 - Stand Up and Be Counted For
"On this day in 1776, the Declaration of Independence was approved by Congress, setting the 13 colonies on the road to freedom as a sovereign nation" according the U.S. Census Bureau website. If our ancestors had only maintained better family records along the way, we wouldn't have the burgeoning business of DNA testing. Luckily your ancestors left clues in your DNA that can determine your deep ancestral origins. Your local DNA collections expert can provide access to a database of DNA collected around the world. Who would think that Genealogical and DNA testing would become such an important past time in the United States and the world? Genealogical tests are dedicated to helping families find lost relatives, build family trees, establish roots and discover your true past. DNA tests allow you to determine what region of the world your family is descended from including true Native American ancestry.
In July 1776, the nation's population was estimated to be 2.5 million mostly from European backgrounds but without true genetic testing, we're only guessing. Approximately, 14 years later the first official census was taken by U.S. Marshals on horseback (the first mobile collectors - although they didn't collect DNA then) and the population grew to 3.9 million people which by then were of Native American, European, African and Asian descent. However, it was not until the Census taken in 1870 (a full 100 years later) that all inhabitants were counted as whole persons. There has been a census taken every 10 years since 1790. The estimate headcount for the 2010 Census is 306,800,505 inhabitants in the United States, DC, PR and the Islands and whose descent is from all regions of the world. The estimated world population is 6,768,138,476 (looks like and IP address)! The U.S. Census information collected from individuals is not made public for 72 years after the census is taken. For businesses, the information becomes public after 30 years.
The census is a count of everyone residing in the United States - but you don't have to be an American to be counted. If you live or sleep most of the year in any of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Island Areas you must be counted. This includes people of all ages, races, ethnic groups, citizens and non-citizens. Prior to 1999, the data extracted from the Census was used for congressional apportionment. Because it was recognized in the 1990 Census that there was a net under-count (non-response) and a statistical adjustment was created, the Supreme Court ruled before the 2000 Census was taken that the population data could not be used for congressional apportionment.
The difference in 2010's census vs. previous years is that all addresses will receive a short form questionnaire, whereas in the past everyone received a short form and one in six households received a long form with socioeconomic questions. The socioeconomic information is now gathered by a separate survey conducted (ACS) every 3 years on a rolling basis from approximately 250,000 addresses per month. The Census Bureau submits population totals to the office of the President of the United States.
Here are some facts taken from recent (last 100 years) Census:
FACTOIDS FROM PREVIOUS CENSUS:
Most Common Surnames Occurring in 2000 Census
Names with similar spellings are combined to create one common surname, as in Smith, Smithie, Smyth, Smythy etc. Many of these top occurring surnames have genealogical projects in progress available to join. If your DNA profile is genetically close to someone with a similar surname, perhaps you are related. Ask your local DNA collections expert, if they have a surname project in your name that you can join to trace the migration of your family to the United States and beyond. Ancestry testing has become a family reunion favorite activity over the last 10 years. The common genetic profiles found among family members - both close and distant - keeps families talking and communicating all year until the next family reunion.
Most Common Spanish Surnames Occurring in the 1990 Census
Spanish surnames can originate in Europe, South, Latin or Central America. You can find out the family's migration by having your ancestral Y-DNA or Mt DNA analyzed and mapped. For fun, you can then log onto a website to find others with similar genetic profiles and surnames and are also searching for their relatives and ancestry. Y-DNA is the paternal side of the family and is passed only from father to son; thus we can perform very conclusive Paternity Tests especially in a father/son test. MtDNA is passed from a mother to all of her offspring. To gain a complete picture of your ancestral origins, have a male's DNA collected from each generation. For example, have one male tested to obtain a history of his father's family via Y-DNA testing, which will exclude any influence from the female side of the family.Then have the same male tested to obtain a history of his MtDNA which will exclude any influences from his father's side of the family.The end result will be a genetic profile and map of the individuals in a generation (and therefore his sisters and brothers) both paternal and maternal migration over the past 50,000 to 150,000 years.Make sure you explain to your local DNA collections expert the exact relativity of everyone being tested and if you are interested in logging onto an internet site to find other people in the world with similar genetic profiles.
Leading Country of Birth of a Foreign Born Inhabitant in the 1930 Census was Italy. This Indicates that the individual was born in Italy, but not necessarily of Italian descent.
To find out if you are truly from Italy, why not have your DNA tested to determine what genetic markers you possess that are in common with other "native born Italians" in our database.
Leading Country of birth of a Foreign Born Inhabitant in the 2000 Census
- El Salvador and Vietnam
- Dominican Republic
Arabic Population in the 2000 Census
Is your genetic profile more closely related to Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan or Muhammad Anwar Al Sadat, 3rd President of Egypt?
- 30% of the inhabitants of the United States in the 2000 Census reported they were of Arab descent. Arab descent includes individuals from Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Jordan, Morocco, Iraq, Arab or Arabic and "other" Arabic countries.
- 42% of the population reported having more than one Arab ancestry.Ethnic questions are based on one's place of origin, descent, roots, heritage and it is usually only asked on Census questionnaires to establish that the respondent had a connection to or self-identified with a particular ethnic group. However, as we have found many times, our connection to a particular ethnic group, does not always include our entire ancestral roots.
There is a number of DNA Ancestry testing options that can outline your ancestral origins. A local DNA collections expert will be able to sort through the testing options most suited for your interests. A recent activity at many family reunions, is to have a local DNA collections expert available for anyone in the family who would like to trace their ancestry and prove the genetic relationship.
To find out more about the current U.S. population, visit the www.census.gov site which provides a host of information in various formats (pdf and xls). All the facts and figures presented here are taken the from the www.census.gov website. The information is meant to inform the reader that we all have our roots in the cultures and traditions of our childhood whether that was in the United States or somewhere else. Each of us has the right to be proud of our culture and we should be able to share our traditions and indeed find the similarities in our traditions with other cultures. However, for today July 4th, let everyone know you are an American, with a proud history of independence, opportunity, privacy and the responsibility to protect those rights.
DNA Show for Stars - Who Do You Think You Are?
All the commercials are pointing to a new show about the glitterati (SJP and the rest) researching their Ancestry and surprise, surprise - everyone that participated in the show is genuinely shocked to know their true ancestry. Hollywood is Hollywood and I appreciate the creativity but it seems unlikely for someone to have reached the age of 21, and notwithstanding an adoption or abduction, and not have some idea of your ancestral origins. This blog is not meant to make light of anyone in a situation where they do not know their parents' country of origin.
Most of us have celebrated a special day during the year with other close and distant family members that gave you a clue as to your family's country of origin. Or you have that chestnut Red Hair and Blue Eyes and you know the words to "Danny Boy" - that gave you a clue, too. Take the upcoming St. Patrick's Day - celebrated in our house every year with Corn Beef and Cabbage (thank God we only had to eat it once a year), Boiled Potatoes, Green Pistachio Bundt Cake (made by a distant cousin) and Irish Coffee for all followed by a round of "I'll Take You Home Again Kathleen, across the ocean...." Or perhaps, you have eaten the most delicious Sfinge - then you probably celebrated St. Joseph's Day. If you can say, Baklava three times real fast - then maybe your ancestral origins are of Haplogroup G.
While TV touts that Ancestry testing or DNA Research is for the stars there are countless Main Street offices that can offer the everyday consumer the same genetic insight into your ancestral origins. Most DNA testing companies offer you access to a database that has genetic matches to you. You are given a login and password and you are off on a journey of who's who that may possibly be related to you, once or twice removed both here in the United States and in countries abroad. My own DNA research revealed that my mother's maiden name and my father's surname - actually are part of a family name project that descend from one gentleman known as Nialls in Ireland. That may explain some family members.... But as with all DNA Tests, it is buyer beware. Know what you are buying and understand the limitations. Some Ancestry testing companies only provide you with a bird's eye view of your origins, that is, you are classified into one of the following four categories:
Others, can delve more deeply and provide you with information as to what type of Haplogroup you have in your genetic make up. Understand that it is the information is a comparison of your DNA to others in a database that have the same genetic patterns at different locations and are therefore classified into a specific category or Haplogroup (see the DNA Lady's previous blogs about Haplogroups).
If you want to get involved in one of the fastest growing hobbies in North America then recreational DNA tests are for you. Have a DNA party at your home or prepare for a family reunion. You can contact one of the local DNA collection centers and find out what type of tests they offer, how the samples collections are performed, the turn around time for results (maybe get everyone tested in May for a family reunion or picnic in July), costs involved and if the collector will offer an interpretation of results or is it just something you receive in the mail.
The DNA Lady will come to your family reunion (give her a little Irish Coffee minus the whiskey) and discuss your results for one hour. Have fun watching the new TV show and remember - you, too, can research your Ancestral Origins - it's fun, inexpensive and keeps family members talking for months afterward with speculation about that eccentric Aunt that never really seemed like one of the family, anyway.
Whatever your interest in DNA Testing, whether it be to research your ancestry, determine your own origins, claim a biological relationship, ie, paternity, maternity, grand paternity, avuncular - today's DNA tests are fast, affordable and non invasive.
DNA testing has come a long way and
today it is being used to trace the ancestry
of ancient bones discovered during an archeological dig in Vagnari, Italy.
Researchers in Italy are all abuzz because they learned something quite
surprising and intriguing when they tested the ancient mitochondrial
DNA (mtDNA) from one of the remains.
Mitochondrial DNA is
passed from the mother to her offspring and from generation to generation there
are few mutations. People who are related to each other will have similar
mutations - allowing the researchers to put them into broad categories or
"haplogroups,". Haplogroups tend to relate to geographical areas of
the world- (see blog entry regarding the 18 Haplogroups) The bones, which date
back 2,000 years, show a link to East Asian ancestry or the Haplogroup D.
Thanks to isotopic evidence, researchers have found that around 20% of the bones
currently analyzed were not born in the vicinity of Vagnari. The mtDNA points
to the assessment that at least this one male individual came from East Asian
descent. It shows that the people who resided in the region thousands of years
ago were not native and belonged to foreign locations. Researchers theorize
they somehow found themselves in Vagnari, traveling across the borders of the
One theory regarding the presence of East Asians in the early Roman Empire is
that they lived between the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. They were most likely
slaves or workers. The burial plot had a single pot, which helped archeologists
date the approximate time of burial. They were also able to indicate that his
burial was disrupted in some way (during the ancient past) and someone was
actually buried on top of his body.
Questions left unanswered include how
recently the subject or his ancestors departed East Asia and if more people
followed his lead. This one male body
could have been the first member of his family in Vagnari or his great
grandmother could have been the first to make the migration. However, by analyzing the oxygen isotope
evidence, it is known that he was not born in Italy and that he most likely
originated outside of the Roman Empire.
At the time of the burial, Vagnari
was an Imperial estate belonging to the emperor of Rome, but controlled by a
local administrator. Workers were brought in to satisfy the industrial needs of
Vagnari, which included generating tile and smelting iron. The tiles were used
to create roofs for buildings and also served as grave covers for the people
laid to rest in the cemetery. Researchers have come to this conclusion by
finding fragments of tiles in and around Vagnari that bear the markings
"Gratus Caesaris." When translated, it means, "slave of the
Archeologists also learned a lesson by excavating this site. A common practice
is to assess grave goods to identify the origin of ancient remains. However,
the goods found in the grave are not connected to the descent of the remains.
The research at the Vagnari site was made possible with funds provided by the
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.
Ancestry and Heritage Testing
How Genealogical DNA Tests Benefit your Ancestral
(For privacy purposes, some details have been removed)
I run the SMITH Family Project at a genealogy testing
facility, my maiden name was SMITH. Before creating this project, I had been
researching my family for years. In these years, I (and others in my family)
have not been able to get back any further than John SMITH who was born ca. 1725.
There was much speculation on where this John was born and also whether he was
actually British or French with such a common surname.
I began researching all the SMITH branches years ago trying to figure out where
our branch may fit in. I never found anything concrete to prove or disprove any
connection to the British SMITH branches in this country.
When Genealogical DNA testing came along, this gave me another opportunity to
prove/disprove a connection to one of the SMITH branches which is why I started
the SMITH Family Project. I had a male family member take a beginner's Genealogy
DNA test. We started with just a 12-marker test, I soon realized that we needed
to test more markers if I was going to find out anything or make any possible
connections as there were a number of 12-marker matches with various surnames
and it was obvious that more testing needed to be done to rule out those that
were definitely not related. Within a couple of weeks of receiving the first
results back, I upgraded the test to Y-DNA 37-marker.
I must point out that I was very aware at this time that I might actually be
looking for a surname other than SMITH. Some family stories that had been
passed down over the years had speculated on a few possible other names, such
as Smyth, Smithe, Smithie, Smythie, Smithy, Smythy all of which could have been changed to SMITH upon
entering the United States.
Once I received the second set of results, a total of Y-DNA 37 markers now, I
realized I had much more concrete information. There were no matches to a SMITH
(at least not close enough to call them relatives); however, out of the 37-markers
tested a male family member's results matched 35-markers with a gentleman named
I wrote to this gentleman immediately. He wrote back and told me of the
research he had done on his Smithie family name, that they had come from Great
Britain; and that perhaps family members had set sail for the USA and had their
family name changed or shortened upon arrival.
Researching this I found that Smithie (a name I mentioned above as being passed
down through the family) had been shortened to SMITH in some cases.
Once again, I upgraded a male family member's test from 37-markers to 67-markers.
The Smithie man also upgraded his test to 67-markers, when these results came
back we were only off by 5-markers.
This Smithie gentleman has a degree in genetics and gives seminars on Genealogy
and DNA testing. He believes that this is the line that my family came from
even though we have yet to make the family connections. He also believes that
if I can get my line back one or two more generations and we should be able to
connect the families together. I am very excited about this; however, getting
my line back even one more generation is proving to be quite challenging and
I'm not sure that I'll be able to find the records to support this theory.
So I said all this, number one to tell my story; but, more importantly, to say
that the matches with alternate surname can be useful if you know or believe
that there may be a possibility that: 1) your surname may have been changed at
some point in time, 2) someone in your direct line may have been adopted or not
the natural child of the parents, or 3) there were some indiscretions on the part
of your ancestors and so a name change was chosen as a way to create
Celebrate DNA Day - April 25, 2009
April 25 is National DNA Day, a day created to commemorate the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003, and to commemorate the discovery of DNA's double helix structure. Today, we also celebrate the release of the total COW genome - see some great questions below from a local New Jersey high school.
Excerpted from: 2009 National DNA Day Moderated Chat Transcript
Q: American History HS in NJ (n/a grade teacher): HIV has proven to be a formidable enemy. How can our knowledge of DNA help put us a step ahead of the many mutations of this virus and allow us to conquer it?
A: Monica Alvarado, M.S., C.G.C.: One approach that may be promising is gene therapy. Clinical trials are under way to explore the potential for gene therapy as a treatment for HIV.
Q: American History HS in NJ (10th grade student): Can a trisomy like Down Syndrome, which is identified before birth, be corrected before the child is born so that he won't have the syndrome?
A: Don Hadley, M.S., C.G.C.: As you probably know, Down syndrome involves a person having an extra chromosome 21 in each and every cell of their body that exerts its effects from the time of conception.Therefore, trying to take that chromosome out would be essentially impossible early enough to make a difference. From a slightly different perspective, I would love to take away the medical problems people with Down syndrome experience, but I would not want to change them otherwise.
Q: American History HS in NJ (10th grade student): I am surprised that cows share so many genes with us. What other animals would I be surprised to find out have such commonalities? (Not including primates.) Stephanie Fisher
A: Praveen Cherukuri, Ph.D.: It all depends on the "degree of sharing" and how one defines "sharing". We share DNA sequence similarity in certain genes to varying degrees with a lot of living organisms. These genes in essence are critical for the maintenance of life. Although the similarity in genes is high (or low for that matter), one needs to be aware that, it is highly critical when (temporal) these genes are expressed and to what degree (levels of protein product) they are expressed.
Q: American History HS in NJ (n/a grade teacher): What is your position on companies who offer pet cloning services? Understanding that it is the DNA (and not necessarily Fluffy's amazing capacity for tricks) that is being cloned, aren't they taking advantage of a person's emotions?
A: Vence Bonham, J.D.: I believe it is helpful to have a basic understanding of the science, that will help individuals understand what it means to "clone" their pet. Learning science is important!
Q: American History HS in NJ (n/a grade teacher): We are in the middle of the 6th mass extinction. As we continue to map out genomes for various organisms, could there be hope for the next version of man to have the technology to 'repopulate' the planet with the amazing organisms that have become extinct?
A: Heather Junkins, M.S.: The idea of recreating extinct populations is highly controversial and needs further examination.
Q: American History HS in NJ (n/a grade teacher): Advances in technology and the understanding of DNA have enabled for the identification of genes that cause cancer and other diseases. How soon can we turn those genes 'off' so that once identified, they can no longer code for their particular disease.
A: Dawn Peck, M.S.: Many genes have been identified to play a role in cancer. They work in different ways. Targeted pharmacogenomic medicines will probably be useful sooner than turning genes off.
Q: American History HS in NJ (n/a grade teacher): Is there evidence or the potential for evidence on understanding or determining one's intelligence (or intellectual potential) by merely looking at their genes?
A: Eric Green, M.D., Ph.D.: Intelligence is a complicated concept, with many things contributing to one's intelligence (genetics, environment, nutrition, schooling, etc.). Genes play a role, but these other factors are critically important as well. Meanwhile, we really don't know know which genes are the critical ones, and there are likely hundreds or more that are relevant. In short, we are no where near being able to look at someone's genes and say anything intelligent about their intelligence.
Q: American History HS in NJ (n/a grade teacher): Somewhat silly question - now that we know that cows share 80% of our DNA (which is more than rats or mice) - will there be building of some seriously new larger labs to house cows as our new lab subjects?
A: Michael Dougherty, PhD: Probably not. Good model organisms for genetics must be inexpensive, easy to care for, and reproduce rapidly, and cows don't fit the bill. Still, the cow genome will allow cattle breeders to be more efficient with their selective breeding.
Q: American History HS in NJ (n/a grade teacher): Our classroom houses the Human Genome Landmarks poster which contains a picture of each chromosome with selected genes, traits and disorders - there are a ton of them! We're wondering how many were not included?
A: Donna Krasnewich, M.D., Ph.D.: This is a great question. As you can tell from your poster there are 23 pairs of chromosomes that carry the DNA of the human genome, 46 chromosomes total. The current thought is that there are about 20,000 genes in the human genome. We know what some of them do, others we don't. There is a wonderful data base on line, called the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, or OMIM, that details what we know about the genes. Check out this website for facts about the genome and disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim/mimstats.html. This database tells us that there are over 12,000 genes with known sequence. 373 genes with a phenotype, or known clinical feature or disease associated with it. There are probably hundreds more where there is not quite enough data to fit into this category. In OMIM there are then listed diseases expected to have a genetic basis but scientists have not figured out which gene. There is plenty of work to do!
Q: American History HS in NJ (n/a grade teacher): I've just read that the cow genome has been completely mapped out. Was it a surprise to see that their total number of genes averaged only about 2,000 or so less than humans?
A: David Bodine, M.D., Ph.D.: That was no surprise. In fact, I think that as the cow genome is more worked out, we'll find a few more. When the first human sequence came out we were expecting a MUCH larger number of genes. Some of this was because there are a lot of proteins, but now we know that one gene can code for many proteins. The other reason was arrogance, if yeast and worms have 3-5000 genes, and flies have 14,000, the humans had to have many more. However, this is not correct. It is not haw many genes you have, it is how they work together that make a cow a cow and a human a human.
This blog is created by the DNA Lady, your local DNA collection expert in Metuchen, NJ. Call 732-632-8820 for information about available DNA tests.
Irish Bones found in Pennsylvania
DNA to confirm if Bones are from 19th-century Irish Immigrants
Clues to the mysterious deaths of 57 Irish immigrants
came first from a secret file that had been locked in a vault until 1970. Irish railroad workers sailed from Ireland in 1832, but within weeks of their arrival died of cholera, according to the story.
Two brothers were able to open the file, six years ago. Both men were historians and believed the Irish immigration story to be just that - a tall Irish tale. On Friday, that story came to life when 90 human bones were found in East
An archaeology research team based at a university in Chester County uncovered 90 human bones that they believe are part of a
mass grave containing the Irish railroad workers' remains.
The historians were shocked at their findings. Previously only animal bones were uncovered.
They are part of the Duffy's Cut Project, an archaeological research
initiative that began in 2002 digging began to find the
gravesite of the Irish railroad workers.
The immigrants had come from Donegal, Tyrone, and Derry Counties in
Ireland to work for Willistown railroad man Philip Duffy. The workers
helped build what was then the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, now
SEPTA's R5 line.
Some researchers suspect violence in their deaths. The men were
buried in a ditch somewhere near Sugartown and King Roads, where they
had lived in a shanty and worked.
Their story came to the attention of the Watson brothers about six
years ago. They had found a file, once locked in a railroad office
vault, that they had inherited from their grandfather, Joseph F.
Tripician. Tripician, of Narberth, was the private secretary to Martin
W. Clement, who served as president of the railroad for 16 years
starting in 1933.
Information in the file about the men and the burial site led to a
wooded area near Sugartown and King Roads in East Whiteland Township.
The file also contained stories of ghost sightings of the dead men,
specifically three of them dancing on their own graves. While he was
working on the project, William Watson said, he saw ghosts of three men
on the campus of Immaculata.
Since 2004, the team has been digging near the site, uncovering
several thousand artifacts including pots, buttons, and smoking pipes.
Team members combed newspapers, diaries, and immigration records to
learn more about the men. Members of the Chester County Emerald
Society, which represents police officers, helped obtain a historical
marker for the site.
A turning point came Friday when the team found bones including
two skulls, teeth, and toe and leg bones, which could be remains for as
many as four people.
One of the skulls is that of a teenager, who researchers think is
John Ruddy. They have compiled the names of 15 of the 57 workers.
Ruddy, 18, from Donegal, is on that list.
The research team will continue its excavation, and the remains will
be catalogued and examined first by the Chester County coroner, then by
researchers with the Smithsonian Institution. DNA testing will follow,
with hopes of matching results with remains of family members in
Several families suspect that their long-lost loved ones were among the 57 who died.
"They were thrown away by society," William Watson said. Once the
bones are recovered, he said, the team "will commemorate them and give
them a proper burial."
Description of the Male Populations of the World
(Please see The DNA Lady's Dictionary
for a definition of Haplogroups
Through DNA Analysis of select male populations in the world, scientists have devised a genetic classification system for the over three billion males in the world. Each male individual in the world can be placed into one of eighteen genetic classifications or Y haplogroups, based on their DNA composition. Each Y haplogroup is defined by rare DNA mutations on the Y chromosome called SNPs, or single nucleotide polymorphisms. Any two men sharing a particular SNP in their DNA, inherited it from a common male ancestor who lived many thousands of years ago.
Following is a brief description of the eighteen different Haplogroups identified in current Ancestry and Heritage testing - find out which haplogroup you belong to and and who you share a common ancestry
with - are you related
to Maria Antoinette, Ghengis Khan, or the Great Irish kings?Haplogroup A
First appeared 55,000 years ago and is considered the oldest of all Y haplogroups and a direct genetic link to early man. This haplogroup is found almost exclusively in Africa with a wide distribution, but low to moderate frequency. Haplogroup A has been found in the San Bushman, Kung, Khwe, Hadza, Malians, Sudanese and Ethiopians of the African continent.Haplogroup B
Another of the older Y haplogroups, Haplogroup B is found almost exclusively in Africa, although it has been detected rarely in Pakistani people. It occurs at low frequency throughout most of Africa, with its highest frequency occurring in Pygmy populations.Haplogoup C
This haplogroup C first appeared approximately 50,000 years ago. Since the mutations that define this haplogroup have not been observed in African populations, it is believed that this haplogroup arose somewhere in Asia. Haplogroup C defines a great coastal migration of man, tracing an arc along the Southern Arabian Peninsula through India, Southeast Asia and Australia. Later descendants of this group migrated to North Eastern Asia and finally reached North America approximately 6,000 to 8,000 years ago.Haplogroup D
This group first appeared approximately 50,000 years ago and likely accompanied the people of Haplogroup C on their great coastal migration through the Southern Arabian Peninsula, India, southeast Asia and ultimately Australia. In modern times, this haplogroup appears along the ancient migration route in the Andaman Islands and Southeast Asia, although not in India. This haplogroup occurs at a high frequency among Tibetan and the Yao populations.Haplogroup E
Haplogroup E consists of three main branches. Two of the three branches, E1 and E2, are found almost exclusively in Africa, while the third, E3 has also been observed in Europe and in Western Asia where it has been found at frequencies of 25% of less. It is currently believed that the E3a haplogroup migrated south from north Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion with the last 3,000 years. As a result of its predominance in West Africa, most African Americans
belong to this haplogroup. The E3b haplogroup, on the other hand, is believed to have evolved in the Middle East and migrated into the Mediterranean during the Pleistocene Neolithic expansion. Haplogroup F
Haplogroup F is defined by at least three mutations and is the root of haplogroups G through R. It is believed that haplogroup F evolved outside of Africa during the early migrations of modern humans approximately 30,000 to 40,00 years ago.Haplogroup G
Haplogroup G is a rare lineage thought to have originated approximately 10,000 to 20,000 years ago along the eastern edge of the Middle East in India or Pakistan. This haplogroup is dispersed throughout Central Asia, Europe and the Middle East. The G2 branch of this lineage is found most often in Europe and the Middle East.Haplogroup H
Haplogroup H is almost completed restricted to India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. It is estimated the H Haplogroup occurs at a frequency up to 50% in most Roma (Gypsy) groups.Haplogroup I
Haplogroup I is believed to have descended from the Gravettian culture which arrived in Europe from the Middle East 20,000 to 25,000 years ago, prior to the last ice age. On average, haplogroup I accounts for 18% of the total paternal lines in Europe and reaches frequencies of 40 - 50% in the Nordic populations of Scandinavia and in Southern Europe near the Dinaric Alps. Haplogroup I, often referred to as the Viking haplogroup, is also found in parts of Ireland, Scotland and England, where it is thought to have descended from Viking invaders.Haplogroup J
This group contains two primary branches, J1 and J2, and is most commonly found in the Middle East, North Africa and Ethiopia. Genetic statistics indicate that this haplogroup originated in the Middle East and was carried outward to Europe, Central Asia, India and Pakistan by Middle Eastern traders about 7,000 to 9,000 years ago. It is believed that this group descended from men of the F haplogroup that arrived 45,000 - 50,000 years ago.Haplogroup K
Haplogroup K first appeared approximately 40,000 years ago in Iran or South Central Asia and spawned the so called Eurasian clan. The majority of the populations living in the Northern hemisphere are decedents of this haplogroup which is characterized as a super haplogroup, incorporating haplogroups L through R.
Haplogroup L is seen in the greatest frequency in Southwest Asia, with some frequencies as high as 25%.Haplogroup M
Haplogroup M occurs with high frequency in peoples of the Iran Jaya Highlands, Papua New Guinea Highlands and New Britain. It also occurs among Western Samoa populations, however with less frequency.Haplogroup N
This group is distributed throughout Northern Eurasia from Europe to the Pacific and is shared by Caucasoids and Mongoloids. It is closely related to haplogroup O, which is found in Mongoloids. It is the most common haplogroups found in Uralic speakers (Finns and Hungarians). This haplogroup most likely originated in Northern China or Mongolia and then spread into Siberia where it became a very common line in Western Siberia. In one Siberian study, haplogroup N occurred at a frequency of 43%.Haplogroup O
Haplogroup O is found frequently in East Asia and is the most frequent haplogroup among the Han Chinese. The O1 haplogroup is found at very high frequencies in the aboriginal Taiwanese. The O2 haplogroup has two primary lines, Os1 and Os2. The O2a line is found in the Southeast Asian populations of Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia and Southern China. The O2b haplogroup occurs at high frequency in Japanese and Korean populations and at low frequency in East Asian populations. Haplogroup P
This group is very rare in modern populations. Although it is believed to be the ancestral line to haplogroups Q and R, it only occurs at low frequency in India, Pakistan and Central Asia. It is most likely originated in either Central Asia or the Altai region of Siberia.
Haplogroup Q first appeared 15,000 - 20,000 years ago and is believed to have originated in Central Asia and subsequently migrated through Northern Asia into the Americas. This lineage is found in North and Central Asian populations as well as Native Americans and is the major lineage that links Asia and the Americas. Haplogroup Q3 is unique among Native American populations and is estimated to have originated 8,000 to 12,000 years ago during the migration into the Americas.Haplogroup R
This final group includes two main lineages, R1a and R1b. Haplogroup R1a commonly occurs in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe and in populations of Central and Western Asia, India and Pakistan. It is believed to have originated in the Kurgan culture
on the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. The R1b haplogroup first appeared approximately 35,000 years ago and is the most frequently occurring lineage in Western European populations. This haplogroup is a direct descendant of the Cro-Magnon people, characterized by a broad face and tall stature. It is believed to have migrated through Europe during re-colonization after the ice age, 10,000 - 12,0000 years ago.
Your Family Tree
Do you have questions of your heritage?
Where your ancestors came from can make you feel part of something greater than yourself.
However, much can be lost on the roots of ones family over the years.
DNA testing can link you back to your roots.