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Articles from Springer a leading global scientific publisher of scientific books and journals. - dna forensic @ Mon, 2 Dec 2019 at 07:35 AM
Forensic Science - Encyclopedia of Law and Economics @ 2021-01-01
Forensic science applies natural, physical, and social sciences to resolve legal matters. The term forensics has been attached to many different fields: economics, anthropology, dentistry, pathology, toxicology, entomology, psychology, accounting, engineering, and computer forensics. Forensic evidence is gathered, examined, evaluated, interpreted, and presented to make sense of an event and provide investigatory leads. Various classification schemes exist for forensic evidence, with some forms of evidence falling under more than one scheme. Rules of evidence differ between jurisdictions, even between countries that share similar legal traditions. This makes the sharing of evidence between countries particularly problematic, at times rendering this evidence inadmissible in national courts. Several measures have been proposed and organizations created to strengthen forensic science and promote best practices for practitioners, researchers, and academicians in the field.
Genetics and Tropical Forests - Tropical Forestry Handbook @ 2021-01-01
Genetics and Tropical Forests - Tropical Forestry Handbook @ 2021-01-01
Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging - Handbook of Photonics for Biomedical Engineering @ 2021-01-01
Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is a key fluorescence microscopy technique to map the environment and interaction of fluorescent probes. It can report on photophysical events that are difficult or impossible to observe by fluorescence intensity imaging, because FLIM is largely independent of the local fluorophore concentration and excitation intensity. Many FLIM applications relevant for biology concern the identification of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to study protein interactions and conformational changes. In addition, FLIM has been used to image viscosity, temperature, pH, refractive index, and ion and oxygen concentrations, all at the cellular level. The basic principles and recent advances in the application of FLIM, FLIM instrumentation, molecular probe, and FLIM detector development will be discussed.
A Survey of Methods and Tools for Large-Scale DNA Mixture Profiling - Smart Infrastructure and Applications @ 2020-01-01
DNA typing or profiling is being widely used for criminal identification, paternity tests, and diagnosis of genetic diseases. DNA typing is considered one of the hardest problems in the forensic science domain, and it is an active area of research. The computational complexity of DNA typing increases significantly with the number of unknowns in the mixture and has been the major deterring factor holding its advancements and applications. In this chapter, we provide an extended review of DNA profiling methods and tools with a particular focus on their computational performance and accuracy. The process of DNA profiling within the broader context of forensic science and genetics is explained. The various classes of DNA profiling methods including general methods, and those based on maximum likelihood estimators, are reviewed. The reviewed DNA profiling tools include LRmix Studio, TrueAllele, DNAMIX V.3, Euroformix, CeesIt, NOCIt, DNAMixture, Kongoh, LikeLTD, LabRetriever, and STRmix. A review of high-performance computing literature in bioinformatics and HPC frameworks is also given. Faster interpretations of DNA mixtures with a large number of unknowns and higher accuracies are expected to open up new frontiers for this area.
Making Forensic Evaluations: Forensic Objectivity in the Swedish Criminal Justice System - Crime and the Construction of Forensic Objectivity from 1850 @ 2020-01-01
This chapter discusses contemporary forensic evaluation practices in contemporary Sweden, in the laboratory and at the crime scene. At both sites, forensic practitioners must manage—and communicate—uncertainty. In the forensic laboratory, forensic scientists use a Bayesian approach to evaluate laboratory results, quantifying inescapable uncertainty and thus making it manageable. This approach has recently also been developed and adapted for crime scene technicians to evaluate their findings at crime scenes. This chapter discusses this extension to the crime scene, arguing that qualities such as impartiality and reliability are not inherent to forensic evidence but are the product of particular forensic practices. In other words, this chapter contends that forensic objectivity must be continuously negotiated and maintained—forensic objectivity is not a past concern but very much an ever-present one in criminal justice.
DNA Based Identification - Hidden Biometrics @ 2020-01-01
In this first chapter of the book, DNA will be investigated as a deepest Hidden Biometrics modality. After presenting some basic ideas, techniques, and some major applications, a special interest will be addressed to recent research topics related to prediction of visible physical traits.
Postmortem Imaging in Mass Disasters - Radiology in Forensic Medicine @ 2020-01-01
The term “mass casualty” in the forensic field refers to a sudden tragic event involving a large number of people; such an event determines the need to perform a large number of autopsy exams, possibly in a short time. Mass casualties tend to involve emergencies that are unexpected and result in stressful situation when even those with no or scarce interest or experience could be called to play a role. Radiology could be helpful in the task of identifying victims, in cooperation with a multidisciplinary team, usually headed by a forensic specialist.
Found 10 Articles for dna forensic